Human Trafficking

FAQ | VIDEOS | ARTICLES 
He will defend the afflicted among the people and save the children of the needy; he will crush the oppressor. — Psalm 72:4

What is Human Trafficking?

Human trafficking is the illegal act of harboring, recruiting, transferring, transporting, selling and purchasing of people through abduction, coercion, deception, fraud, and abuse of power for financial exploitation and profit. Exploitation includes prostitution and other forms of sexual exploitation, forced labor or services, slavery or similar practices, servitude, and the removal of human organs for profit.

global-slavery-index
Data/Image Credit: Global Slavery Index 2016

Understanding Human Trafficking

Types Of Human Trafficking

TYPES OF HUMAN TRAFFICKING

Human trafficking is slavery. There are more slaves in the 21st century than known to have existed in human history. The most prevalent types of human trafficking are sex-trafficking, forced labor, and domestic servitude.

The Global Slavery Index estimates that in 2016 there are 45.8 million slaves in 167 countries– the majority of whom is women and girls. That’s 85 percent of the nations in the world– who are enslaved. Women and girls are primarily exploited for sex-trafficking, whereas men are primarily exploited for forced labor.

Data Source: World Economic Forum, International Labour Organization, Human Trafficking Centre

Nearly 60 Percent Of The World's Slaves Are In 5 Countries

Sex Trafficking

SEX TRAFFICKING

Nearly 80 percent of all slaves are sex-trafficked, an estimated 4.5 million people. The overwhelming majority– 98 percent of sex-trafficked victims– are women and girls. 

Sex-trafficking of women and children is the fastest growing criminal enterprise in the world, despite the fact that international law and that 134 countries have criminalized the practice.

Why Does Sex Trafficking Exist?

Sex-trafficking exists because men, individuals and groups, so-called sex tourists, either travel abroad to purchase commercial sex. Buyers easily exploit weak legal systems that enable and ignore the sexual abuse primarily of poor girls from marginalized communities.

Sex-trafficking also exists because in some countriesit is legal. Trafficking women and girls is culturally and legally permissible in several African, South American, Gulf State and Middle Eastern countries.

trafficking-of-women

Source Credit: 2015 Survey of Global Laws On Trafficking of Women. Women’s Stats Project.

America is one of several primary destinations for trafficked victims in the world. Approximately 14,500-17,500 victims are trafficked into the U.S. every year. Girls as young as 5-years-old are trafficked and sold to brothels for a maximum of $100 per child. The standard price for illegal commercial sex with women at a U.S. brothel is $30.

Law enforcement data varies by state, but to date, Houston, Texas has the highest number of trafficked victims in America. And, the State Attorney General reported that Texas has the second highest number of calls made to the Human Trafficking Resource Center in the country.

Trafficking & The Internet

Trafficking and The Internet

Supply and demand have increased through the years partially due to the internet and the ease with which traffickers and customers can discreetly complete a tr ansaction. Traffickers utilize social media, dating sites and online advertisements to market minors and trafficked victims. Ads seemingly posted by a person willingly engaged in the sex trade are often created or monitored by traffickers. Traffickers lie about the victim’s age and may even disguise themselves as the person in the ad when communicating with johns via the internet or phone. Some websites try to screen ads for trafficking; however, the sheer volume of ads makes this process a daunting task. For instance, when the U.S. Craigslist Adult Services Section was available, there were 10,000-16,000 adult services postings per day in the U.S. alone. Additionally, it’s difficult to determine if the person advertising is independently working in the sex industry or is under a trafficker. (1)

This chart is from SharedHope.org

what-infographic-problem

The Number of Prosecutions of Human Traffickers is Alarmingly Low:

•According to the 2015 State Department Trafficking in Persons (TIP) report, there were only 10,051 prosecutions and 4,443 convictions for trafficking globally in 2014.

◦811 prosecutions, 317 convictions and the identification of 9,523 victims occurred in Africa

◦1,938 prosecutions, 969 convictions and the identification of 6,349 victims occurred in East Asia & the Pacific

unodc

◦4,199 prosecutions, 1,585 convictions, and the identification of 11,910 victims occurred in Europe

◦320 prosecutions, 144 convictions, and the identification of 3,388 victims occurred in the Near East

◦1,839 prosecutions, 958 convictions, and the identification of 4,878 victims occurred in South & Central Asia

◦944 prosecutions, 470 convictions, and the identification of 8,414 victims occurred in the Western Hemisphere

•Of the estimated 14.5 million forced labor victims worldwide, only 418 cases of forced labor were prosecuted globally in 2014, according to the US Department of State, a 65% decrease from 1,199 cases prosecuted in 2013.

•In 2014, the Department of Justice convicted a total of 184 human traffickers, up from 174 in 2013.

cc2015_human_trafficking_destinations

(1)http://www.endslaverynow.org/learn/slavery-today/sex-trafficking

Child Sex Slaves

UNICEF estimates that there are over 2 million sex-trafficked children worldwide.

 

The average age of a girl first trafficked into prostitution is 13.

Sex slavery and trafficking of children is connected to other forms of child slavery. The poorest children are most vulnerable. Children may be forced into domestic servitude and are sexually abused by a new family member. In several impoverished countries children are married off by family members to gain financial stability or to pay off a debt. Parents often ask their children to work to help provide for their family.

Domestic Servitude

DOMESTIC SERVITUDE

Domestic servitude is one form of bonded slavery and it is also linked to forced marriage.

Servitude involves … in the custody of traffickers, a victim’s passport and official papers are confiscated and held. Victims are told they are in the destination country illegally, which increases victims’ dependence on their traffickers. Victims are often kept in captivity and also trapped into debt bondage, whereby they are obliged to pay back large recruitment and transportation fees before being released from their traffickers. Many victims report being charged additional fines or fees while under bondage, requiring them to work longer to pay off their debts.

Isolation – By definition, domestic work occurs within the confines of a residential home. Victims within domestic work may have extremely limited or monitored interaction with others in the community, such as neighbors, school staff, or postal workers.  The NHTRC has received calls from domestic workers were required to live in their employer’s home and never left the premise of the residence.  This level of isolation can be exploited by employers who proactively seek to limit victim’s interactions with the outside work and limit access to technology.

A 2011 U.S. State Department report detailed domestic servitude in 180 country worldwide. It states:

“people may be trafficking victims regardless of whether they were born into a state of servitude or were transported to the exploitative situation, whether they once consented to work for a trafficker, or whether they participated in a crime as a direct result of being trafficked. At the heart of this phenomenon are the myriad forms of enslavement – not the activities involved in international transportation.”

Data Source: U.S. State Department.

Data Source: U.S. State Department.

What Does Domestic Servitude Look like?

Domestic servitude is the seemingly normal practice of live-in help that is used as cover for the exploitation and control of someone, usually from another country. It is a form of forced labor, but it also warrants its own category of slavery because of the unique contexts and challenges it presents.

Victims of domestic servitude may appear to be nannies or other domestic help, but the moment their employment arrangement transitions into a situation whereby they cannot leave on their own free will, it becomes a case of enslavement.

Though working, if their employer or recruiter adds on additional costs that can never be repaid, like housing or food, then the arrangement has transitioned into a form of slavery. This problem is compounded when employers or recruiters neglect legal documentation or confiscate it because migrant domestic workers are often fearful of reporting the abuse for fear of legal consequences.

What Happens To Victims?

Human trafficking victims experience various stages of degradation and physical and psychological torture. Victims are often deprived of food and sleep, are unable to move about freely, and are physically tortured. In order to keep women captive, victims are told their families and their children will be harmed or murdered if they (the women) try to escape or tell anyone about their situation. Because victims rarely understand the culture and language of the country into which they have been trafficked, they experience another layer of psychological stress and frustration.

Often, before servicing clients, women are forcibly raped by the traffickers themselves, in order to initiate the cycle of abuse and degradation. Some women are drugged in order to prevent them from escaping. Once “broken in,” sex trafficked victims can service up to 30 men a day, and are vulnerable to sexually transmitted diseases, HIV infection and unwanted pregnancy.

Domestic servitude is also linked to forced marriage. In the case of minors, it’s also a case of child enslavement. Forced marriage is a mix of several forms of slavery, including forced labor, sexual enslavement and domestic servitude. Oftentimes, these individuals do not speak the language of the country they are in, are fearful of immigration officials or are unable to make contact outside of the home they serve.

In Haiti

Forced domestic servitude is quite common in Haiti, whereby forced child servants are called restaveks. Restavek comes from the French “rester avec,” which means “one who stays with.” Haitian parents send their children to work and live with other families in exchange for better care and educational opportunities. These children are forced to work as enslaved domestic servants, and there are hundreds of stories of these children facing extreme beatings and inhumane living conditions, while never receiving the promised care or education. [http://www.endslaverynow.org/learn/slavery-today/domestic-servitude]

In America

Millions of migrant domestic workers around the world are particularly vulnerable to forced labor. Overwhelmingly, women and girls (typically from developing countries in Asia, Africa, and Latin America), assume great risks when migrating.

Domestic workers perform work within their employers’ households, and provide services such as cooking, cleaning, child-care, elder care, gardening and other household work.  Domestic workers may or may not live in their employer’s homes.  Victims of domestic servitude commonly work 10 to 16 hours a day for little to no pay.

Domestic workers may be U.S. citizens, undocumented immigrants, or foreign nationals with specific visas types.  The following visa types are common: A-3, G-5, NATO-7 or B-1. Victims of domestic servitude in the U.S. are most often foreign national women with or without documentation living in the home of their employer.  Men and boys may also be victims, but these cases are less common.

Exclusion from certain labor laws – Domestic work is particularly vulnerable to exploitation due to their exclusion from federal laws governing overtime pay, a safe and healthy work environment, workplace discrimination, and the right to organize and bargain collectively.   Recently, some states have stepped in to cover gaps, passing domestic workers’ rights laws.

War Slavery

WAR SLAVERY

Boko Haram Female Child Soldiers
ISIS Sex Slavery

ISIS, the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria, is inflicting terror and pain across the Middle East and the rest of the world. It also advocates that all non-Muslim women and girls are considered war booty and can be taken as sex slaves. Using social media and mobile phone apps, ISIS promotes “slave bazaars” to buy, trade, and sell women and girls.

ISIS Price List for Sex Slaves:

isis-sex-slaves

The Research and Fatwa Department of ISIS released a pamphlet on sex slaves, dated Muharram 1436 (October/November 2014), and published by the Al-Himma Library, Su’al wa-Jawab fi al-Sabi wa-Riqab (“Questions and Answers on Taking Captives and Slaves”) to clarify what Islamic law teaches about sex slaves. Thanks to MEMRI, a human rights organization, an English translation was made available. In it, the pamphlet instructs ISIS fighters to beat and trade all non-Muslim women and girls. The following are excerpts that were posted on Twitter:

  1. What is al-sabi? Al-Sabi is a woman from among ahl al-harb [the people of war] who has been captured by Muslims.
  2. What makes al-sabi permissible? What makes al-sabi permissible [i.e., what makes it permissible to take such a woman captive] is [her] unbelief. Unbelieving [women] who were captured and brought into the abode of Islam are permissible to us, after the imam distributes them [among us].
  3. Can all unbelieving women be taken captive? There is no dispute among the scholars that it is permissible to capture unbelieving women [who are characterized by] original unbelief [kufr asli], such as the kitabiyat [women from among the People of the Book, i.e., Jews and Christians] and polytheists. However, [the scholars] are disputed over [the issue of] capturing apostate women. The consensus leans toward forbidding it, though some people of knowledge think it permissible. We [ISIS] lean toward accepting the consensus.
  4. Is it permissible to have intercourse with a female captive? It is permissible to have sexual intercourse with the female captive. Allah the almighty said: “[Successful are the believers] who guard their chastity, except from their wives or (the captives and slaves) that their right hands possess, for then they are free from blame [Koran 23:5–6].”
  5. Is it permissible to have intercourse with a female captive immediately after taking possession [of her]? If she is a virgin, he [her master] can have intercourse with her immediately after taking possession of her. However, if she isn’t, her uterus must be purified [first].
  6. Is it permissible to sell a female captive? It is permissible to buy, sell, or give as a gift female captives and slaves, for they are merely property, which can be disposed of as long as that doesn’t cause [the Muslim ummah] any harm or damage.
  7. Is it permissible to separate a mother from her children through [the act of] buying and selling? It is not permissible to separate a mother from her prepubescent children through buying, selling, or giving away [a captive or slave]. [But] it is permissible to separate them if the children are grown and mature.
  8. If two or more [men] buy a female captive together, does she then become [sexually] permissible to each of them? It is forbidden to have intercourse with a female captive if [the master] does not own her exclusively. One who owns [a captive] in partnership [with others] may not have sexual intercourse with her until the other [owners] sell or give him [their share].
  9. If the female captive was impregnated by her owner, can he then sell her? He can’t sell her if she becomes the mother of a child.
  10. If a man dies, what is the law regarding the female captive he owned? Female captives are distributed as part of his estate, just as all [other parts] of his estate [are distributed]. However, they may only provide services, not intercourse, if a father or [one of the] sons has already had intercourse with them, or if several [people] inherit them in partnership.
  11. May a man have intercourse with the female slave of his wife? A man may not have intercourse with the female slave of his wife, because [the slave] is owned by someone else.
  12. May a man kiss the female slave of another, with the owner’s permission? A man may not kiss the female slave of another, for kissing [involves] pleasure, and pleasure is prohibited unless [the man] owns [the slave] exclusively.
  13. Is it permissible to have intercourse with a female slave who has not reached puberty? It is permissible to have intercourse with the female slave who hasn’t reached puberty if she is fit for intercourse; however if she is not fit for intercourse, then it is enough to enjoy her without intercourse.
  14. What private parts of the female slave’s body must be concealed during prayer? Her private body parts [that must be concealed] during prayer are the same as those [that must be concealed] outside [prayer], and they [include] everything besides the head, neck, hands, and feet.
  15. May a female slave meet foreign men without wearing a hijab? A female slave is allowed to expose her head, neck, hands, and feet in front of foreign men if fitna [enticement] can be avoided. However, if fitna is present, or of there is fear that it will occur, then it [i.e., exposing these body parts becomes] forbidden.
  16. Can two sisters be taken together while taking slaves? It is permissible to have two sisters, a female slave and her aunt [her father’s sister], or a female slave and her aunt [from her mother’s side]. But they cannot be together during intercourse, [and] whoever has intercourse with one of them cannot have intercourse with the other, due to the general [consensus] over the prohibition of this.
  17. What is al-’azl? Al-’azl is refraining from ejaculating on a woman’s pudendum [i.e., coitus interruptus].
  18. May a man use the al-’azl [technique] with his female slave? A man is allowed [to use] al-’azl during intercourse with his female slave with or without her consent.
  19. Is it permissible to beat a female slave? It is permissible to beat the female slave as a [form of] darb ta’deeb [disciplinary beating], [but] it is forbidden to [use] darb al-takseer [literally, breaking beating], [darb] al-tashaffi [beating for the purpose of achieving gratification], or [darb] al-ta’dheeb [torture beating]. Further, it is forbidden to hit the face.
  20. What is the ruling regarding a female slave who runs away from her master? A male or female slave’s running away [from their master] is among the gravest of sins.
  21. What is the earthly punishment of a female slave who runs away from her master? She [i.e., the female slave who runs away from her master] has no punishment according to the sharia of Allah; however, she is [to be] reprimanded [in such a way that] deters others like her from escaping.
  22. Is it permissible to marry a Muslim [slave] or a kitabiyya [i.e., Jewish or Christian] female slave? It is impermissible for a free [man] to marry Muslim or kitabiyat female slaves, except for those [men] who feared to [commit] a sin, that is, the sin of fornication.
  23. If a man marries a female slave who is owned by someone else, who is allowed to have intercourse with her? A master is prohibited from having intercourse with his female slave who is married to someone else; instead, the master receives her service, [while] the husband [gets to] enjoy her [sexually].
  24. Are the huddoud [Koranic punishments] applied to female slaves? If a female slave committed what necessitated the enforcement of a hadd [on her], a hadd [is then] enforced on her—however, the hadd is reduced by half within the hudud that accepts reduction by half.
  25. What is the reward for freeing a slave girl? Allah the exalted said [in the Koran]: “And what can make you know what is [breaking through] the difficult pass [hell]? It is the freeing of a slave.” And [the prophet Muhammad] said: “Whoever frees a believer Allah frees every organ of his body from hellfire.”
Forced Labor Trafficking

FORCED LABOR TRAFFICKING

FORCED LABOR: ALTHOUGH LESS FREQUENTLY DETECTED AND REPORTED, FORCED LABOR OR SERVICES (INCLUDING THEFT OF HUMAN ORGANS, AND CHILD SOLDIERS) IS THE SECOND MOST COMMON FORM OF HUMAN TRAFFICKING.

According to the ILO’s Forced Labor Convention, forced or compulsory labor is all work or service which is exacted from any person under the threat of a penalty and for which the person has not offered himself or herself voluntarily. Forced labor can include forced sexual services.

Estimates

Globally, the U.N. estimates that roughly 18 percent of the world’s slaves work in manual labor or service industries. Roughly 3 out of every 1,000 people worldwide are forced into labor at any given time.

Of the estimated 22 million people in forced labor, 18.7 million (90%) are exploited in private economies, by individuals or private enterprises.

Labor-trafficked victims are lured into working under horrific conditions by first believing they are being transported for a high-paying job or educational or travel opportunity. Instead, they arrived to work long hours for little-to-no pay under duress, primarily in the agricultural, catering and restaurant, construction, domestic work, entertainment, garment and textile sweatshop, and sex industries. The International Labor Organization (ILO)  estimated that there are 14.2 million people trapped in forced labor in agricultural, construction, domestic work and manufacturing jobs alone– worldwide.

Photo Credit: UNOCD

Photo Credit: UNOCD

Facts & Figures

Facts and figures

•Almost 21 million people are victims of forced labour – 11.4 million of them are women and girls

•Almost 19 million victims are exploited by private individuals or enterprises and over 2 million by the state or rebel groups.

•Of those exploited by individuals or enterprises, 4.5 million are victims of forced sexual exploitation.

•Forced labour in the private economy generates US$ 150 billion in illegal profits per year.

• Domestic work, agriculture, construction, manufacturing and entertainment are among the sectors most concerned.

• Migrant workers and indigenous people are particularly vulnerable to forced labour.

The Trafficking Resources Center explains that labor trafficking may be distinguished from other forms of labor exploitation by applying the Action + Means + Purpose Model. Human trafficking occurs when a trafficker takes any one of the enumerated actions, and then employs the means of force, fraud or coercion for the purpose of compelling the victim to provide commercial sex acts or labor or services.At a minimum, one element from each column must be present to establish a potential situation of human trafficking. The presence of force, fraud or coercion indicates that the victim has not consented of his or her own free will.(2)

unknown-1

From traffickingresourcescenter.org

Primary Causes & Methods Of Human Trafficking

PRIMARY CAUSES & METHODS OF HUMAN TRAFFICKING

Trafficking victims are traded and sold among multiple traffickers, eventually ending up much further from their country of origin. Trafficked victims are often transported through multiple countries before arriving at their final destination.

Significant factors contributing to human trafficking include cultural norms, deception and forced labor, and war.

Cultural Norms

Bride Abductions, slave bazaars, and arranged marriage swaps in which girls have no other option to be traded other than death. This includes selling a girl to pay a debt. In many developing countries, parents are forced to give one or more of their children for the rest of their family to survive. Child brides in Yemen can fetch several thousand dollars, providing enough income for the family to live for a few years.

Deception & Forced Labor

Women and girls primarily from Asia, former Soviet states, and the Caucuses are offered well-paying employment opportunities in western countries; lured by offers of legitimate and legal work as shop assistants, waitresses, models, nannies, or dancers. In some cases, traffickers operate under the guise of agencies offering full-service cross-country dating services. Others are promised marriage or educational opportunities. Still others, are tricked into being trafficked by their boyfriends, friends, neighbors or parents– for financial profit.

In most instances, a woman or girl’s transportation is paid for, as are papers for her “living arrangements” and employment. Once the woman or girl arrives to her destination, she is abused, threatened, and sold in the sex industry. She is often informed that she is in debt to her trafficker for recruiting, transporting, and keeping her safe from authorities in a country she has illegally entered. The trafficked victim is told she will be “free” once the debt is paid off.

War

The terrorist group, ISIS, best exemplifies how free women and girls become sex slaves. In war-torn countries many families are forced to sell their daughters as “protection money” from insurgents. Non-Muslims girls are sold at slave bazaars to the highest bidder. Women and girls are sold via the Internet or through catalogues. Buyers chose which woman or girl they want from an inventory list of photos and basic information.

burka-slavery-image

Worldwide Effects Of Trafficking

WORLDWIDE EFFECTS OF TRAFFICKING

Sex-trafficking creates innumerable negative consequences for societies worldwide. Individuals and societies are damaged socially, culturally, and economically, as every aspect of slavery touches every aspect of the daily lives of non-slaves.

Cost To Victims

The tragedy of human trafficking is that 99 percent of victims are never rescued. The one percent who do survive must learn how to create a new identity, build their self-worth and self-esteem, live safely without fear, and gain skills to become self-sufficient. This is exceptionally difficult for women and girls who were trapped in cycles of sexual violence and assault.

Sex trafficking has devastating consequences for the trafficked individual. Victims may suffer from long-lasting physical and psychological trauma, disease (HIV/AIDS), drug addiction, malnutrition and social ostracism.

Child sex-slaves face challenges when they ask for help, try to escape, and/or are rescued. Some child survivors are first arrested and treated as delinquents. Some societal norms make it impossible for children to live a “normal life.” Many believe they have no options other than to continue in prostitution. In many cultures, children – especially violated girls – are seen as outcasts by their family and community, because they are marked as “tainted.”

Child survivors are often isolated, intimidated, sold into debt bondage and subject to physical and sexual assault by their traffickers.  Most live under constant mental and physical threat. Many suffer severe emotional trauma, including symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder and disassociation. Many become pregnant and are forced to undergo often unsafe abortions.

Societal Costs

Besides the obvious human and legal rights violations of the victims, human trafficking creates a negative impact on the world economy from the sheer loss of human and social capital. Loss of knowledge, educational processes and capacity for human development is lost for millions of victims who otherwise could have contributed to societal advancement, including educational, scientific or medical research.

No Justice

The number of convictions of human traffickers is incomparable to the problem. In some cases, low conviction rates result from the absence of anti-trafficking legislation in some countries. Or, legislation exists, but law enforcement officials are not adequately equipped or trained to investigate and pursue offenders. Other times, victims may be unwilling or too afraid to cooperate because of threats they’ve received from traffickers. In many cases, widespread corruption enables human trafficking to perpetuate; law enforcement or customs officials play an integral role in the criminal enterprise of trafficking and are paid handsomely to turn a blind eye.

The Offenders

THE OFFENDERS

Traffickers often buy children from family members and close friends. Depending on the child, their price tag can exceed several hundred to a few thousand dollars. Children are then sold to individuals, businesses, and groups in various industries, primarily the sex tourism industry. Once they are bought, children are forced to perform a range of sex acts against their will, repeatedly, on a daily basis.

Sex Traffickers

Online predators and traffickers find the most insecure, vulnerable and desperate children to manipulate and dominate, from whom they can continuously sell and profit. Most traffickers are the same nationality as their victims.

Labor Traffickers

Culprits who target, deceive, steal, or force people into forced labor include recruiters, contractors, and sometimes employers. They generally use violence, threats, lies, debt bondage, or other forms of coercion to trap victims into a cycle of working against their will in many different industries. Labor traffickers lure victims through offers of false employment or educational opportunities, or through sheer force and/or threats to harm a victim’s family member if they don’t comply.

Article III of the U.N. Protocol to Prevent, Suppress, and Punish Trafficking in Persons identifies three key aspects of trafficking: the act, means, and purpose:

act-means-purpose

History Of Human Trafficking

HISTORY OF HUMAN TRAFFICKING

Slavery is not by any means a new problem for the world. Some of the earliest references to slavery is during the 18th Century BC Babylon Era. Slaves during the time were allowed to own property but their slave status had more to do with their legal status than anything else.

Most of the slaves were Babylonians of the same race and nationality as their  masters, spoke the same language, and worshipped the same gods. The slave was  regarded as a member of the family and was educated at the same level, so many  slaves were skilled artisans and even had literary or scientific knowledge.  Many times slaves were adopted by their  owners and thus became free citizens. The lines separating slavery and freedom  were fuzzy anyway, since a man or a woman could sell themselves to settle a  debt, and later acquire their freedom by various means. Parents could sell  their children, and in certain circumstances brothers could sell their sisters  if they were minors and the parents were dead. (1)

exodus1

Hebrews were slaves in Ancient Egypt

Slaves in Greece from the 7th century BC

Both the leading states of Greece – Sparta and Athens – depend entirely upon forced labour, though the system in Sparta is more properly described as serfdom rather than slavery. The distinction is that the helots of Sparta are a conquered people, living on their own hereditary land but forced to work it for their Spartan masters. Their existence is a traditional rural one to which certain rights remain attached.

The slaves of Athens, by contrast, have no conventional rights. But their condition varies greatly according to the work they do.

The most unfortunate Athenian slaves are the miners, who are driven often to the point of death by their owners (the mines are state-owned but are leased to private managers). By contrast other categories of slaves – particularly those owned directly by the state, such as the 300 Scythian archers who provide the police force of Athens – can acquire a certain prestige.

The majority of Athenian slaves are domestic servants. Their fortune depends entirely on the relationship they develop with their owners. Often it is close, with female slaves looking after the children or acting as concubines, or a male slave running the household as a steward.

No free Athenian works in a domestic capacity, for it is considered shameful to be another man’s servant. This inhibition applies equally to a subsidiary position in any form of business.

As a result male slaves in Athens do all work of a secretarial or managerial nature, for in these contexts they are unmistakably somebody else’s personal assistant. Such jobs include positions of influence in fields such as banking and commerce. (2)

slave-market-hi-res4

The Sex trade flourished with the conquests of Islam as these warriors used women as bounties of war and traded them across the Islamic Empire and eventually around the world

Records of slavery are also found from Rome and the Middle Ages all the way to the slave trade in Europe and the Americas. By this time slaves were from all over the world. Slaves were also people who were sold to cover debt, prisoners of war and those simply sold by their families to for monetary gain.

Slavery today remains a huge problem at conservative estimates of the number of slaves around the world being around 25 million people and more reasonable estimates at over 36 million people.

(1) http://ililarbel.weebly.com/the-golden-rule-the-life-of-hillel-the-elder/slavery-in-babylonia

(2)http://www.historyworld.net/wrldhis/PlainTextHistories.asp?ParagraphID=cio

15 Steps To Help Fight Human Trafficking

15 STEPS TO HELP FIGHT HUMAN TRAFFICKING

In the United States, you can call the following:

1 (888) 373-7888

National Human Trafficking Resource Center

The U.S. Department of State lists the following 15 steps you can take to help fight Human Trafficking

  1. Learn the indicators of human trafficking so you can help identify a potential trafficking victim. Human trafficking awareness training is available for individuals, businessesfirst responderslaw enforcementeducators, and federal employees, among others.
  2. If you are in the United States and believe someone may be a victim of human trafficking, report your suspicions to law enforcement by calling 911 or the 24-hour National Human Trafficking Resource Center line at 1-888-373-7888. Trafficking victims, including undocumented individuals, are eligible for services and immigration assistance.
  3. Be a conscientious and informed consumer. Discover your slavery footprint, ask who picked your tomatoes or made your clothes, or check out the Department of Labor’s List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced LaborEncourage companies to take steps to investigate and prevent human trafficking in their supply chains and publish the information for consumer awareness.
  4. Volunteer and support anti-trafficking efforts in your community.
  5. Meet with and/or write to your local, state, and federal government representatives to let them know you care about combating human trafficking, and ask what they are doing to address it.
  6. Host an awareness event to watch and discuss films about human trafficking. For example, learn how modern slavery exists today; watch an investigative documentary about sex trafficking; or discover how human trafficking can affect global food supply chains. Also, check out CNN’s Freedom Project for more stories on the different forms of human trafficking around the world.
  7. Organize a fundraiser and donate the proceeds to an anti-trafficking organization.
  8. Encourage your local schools to partner with students and include modern slavery in their curricula. As a parent, educator, or school administrator, be aware of how traffickers target school-aged children.
  9. Be well-informed. Set up a web alert to receive current human trafficking news. Become familiar with public awareness materials available from the Department of Health and Human Services or the Department of Homeland Security.
  10. Work with a local religious community or congregation to help stop trafficking by supporting a victim service provider or spreading awareness of human trafficking.
  11. Provide jobs, internships, skills training, and other opportunities to trafficking survivors.
  12. Students: Take action on your campus. Join or establish a university club to raise awareness about human trafficking and initiate action throughout your local community. Consider doing one of your research papers on a topic concerning human trafficking. Request that human trafficking be included in university curricula.
  13. Health Care Providers: Learn how to identify the indicators of human trafficking and assist victims. With assistance from anti-trafficking organizations, extend low-cost or free services to human trafficking victims.
  14. Journalists: The media plays an enormous role in shaping perceptions and guiding the public conversation about human trafficking. Here are some media best practices on how to effectively and responsibly report stories on human trafficking.
  15. Attorneys: Offer human trafficking victims legal services, including support for those seeking benefits or special visas. Resources are available for attorneys representing victims of human trafficking.
How To Identify & Help Trafficked Victims

HOW TO IDENTIFY & HELP TRAFFICKED VICTIMS

Human Trafficking Indicator

Human Trafficking Indicators

While not an exhaustive list, these are some key red flags that could alert you to a potential trafficking situation that should be reported according to the U.S. Department Of State:

•Living with employer

•Poor living conditions

•Multiple people in cramped space

•Inability to speak to individual alone

•Answers appear to be scripted and rehearsed

•Employer is holding identity documents

•Signs of physical abuse

•Submissive or fearful

•Unpaid or paid very little

•Under 18 and in prostitution

If you see or hear anything suspicious, always call 911. It is better to be wrong than it is to miss an opportunity to help someone

Safety Tips

The Trafficking Resources Center lists states that if you feel like you may be in a trafficking situation, please consider how to plan for your safety. Below are some basic safety tips. If you would like to discuss creating a safety plan, contact the hotline for help at 1-888-373-7888.

Trust your judgment. If a situation/individual makes you uncomfortable, trust that feeling.

•Keep all important documents and identification in your possession at all times.

•Keep important numbers on your person at all times, including the number of someone you feel safe contacting if you are in trouble.

•Make sure that you have a means of communication (cell phone, phone card), access to your bank account, and any medication that you might need with you at all times. Have an extra phone charger on you.

•Document any unwanted contact by your trafficker (calls, texts, emails, showing up at your work/home) and save any voicemails/texts/emails that are threatening in nature.

•Have a special signal (lights flicking on and off, code word, code text message, etc.) to use with a trusted friend/relative/neighbor to notify them that you are in danger or a person/situation is suspicious.

•If you are ever in immediate danger, the quickest way to access help is to call 911.

Did You Know?

Did You Know?

Countries with the highest No. of slaves: India, China, Pakistan, Nigeria, Ethiopia

On Average, a sex trafficked victim will be raped 6000 times, has a life expectancy of 7 years and has a 1 out of a 100 chance of being rescued or escaping

More than 50% of all slaves are under 18 years old.

80% Of ALL Trafficked Slaves Are Women

46% Of Traffickers are not strangers, but are known to the victim

Top 3 Sex Trafficking Venues: 1. Commercial Front Brothel 2. Hotel/Motel based 3. Residential Brothel

VOW Articles on Human Trafficking

ORGANIZATIONS VOW IS SPONSORING/FUNDING

GLORY HOUSE

The Glory House of Miami is a Christ-centered non-profit organization devoted to healing and restoring the lives of those who have suffered the abuse and exploitation of sex trafficking. In August of 2011 our eyes were opened to the sex trafficking industry and the shocking truth that the trade is thriving in our own backyard. Around the world, approximately 27 million men, women, and children are enslaved and trafficked. Florida is commonly cited along with New York and California as being one of the top destinations for trafficking victims in the United States, but in Miami alone, $235M is generated through the exploitation of captive adults and children. These facts hung heavy in our hearts, and our mission became to provide a safe home and healing environment where rescued victims will regain their freedom and health, and where they can become wholly restored through a faith-based approach. The Glory House of Miami provides long-term service to rescued female victims between the ages of 18-25 years. Sister Fa With all her heart, Sister Fa stands up for the fight against female genital cutting. The wish to sensitize the population of her home country was the origin of her Education sans Excision (Education without Cutting) project. Since 2008 she tours every year very successful with her band through Senegal. In cooperation with NGO’s like Tostan, Orchid Project and World Vision she achieved beside many other things, that the inhabitants of her home village Thionck Essyl now officially abandoned this practice of cutting the young girls. Freedom Prize For her tireless work to better the situation of the woman and girls in her homeland Senegal, Freedom To Create awarded Sister Fa in November 2011 in Cape Town, South Africa with the main prize.

EXODUS CRY

Every person should be free Exodus Cry is built on a foundation of prayer and is committed to abolishing sex slavery through Christ-centered prevention, intervention, and holistic restoration of trafficking victims. Exodus Cry was birthed out of the 24/7 prayer room at the International House of Prayer Mission Base of Kansas City, when Senior Leader Benjamin Nolot was stirred to pioneer an organization that would combine prayer and practical ministry to see sex trafficking and slavery ended around the world. The International House of Prayer supports and partners with Exodus Cry’s pursuit to abolish sex slavery through Christ-centered prevention, intervention, and holistic restoration for trafficking victims.

vow to donate

VOW is a non-profit organization that cannot exist without your continued generosity.

vow to be informed

You can’t fight what you don’t know. VOW to stay informed by subscribing to VOW’s newsletter.

vow to help

VOW to protect women and girls one community at a time. Become a VOW Angel.

Start typing and press Enter to search