Female genital mutilation (FGM), which some erroneously refer to as “female circumcision,” is the intentional cutting of female genitalia. It is internationally recognized as a human rights violation, a crime against humanity, and is illegal in most industrialized countries.
However, it is widely practiced in at least 30 countries and is known to affect over 200 million women and girls living today worldwide.
The WHO estimates that up to 140 million girls and women worldwide have been subjected to one of the first three types of female genital mutilation.
In most of these countries, the majority of girls were cut before age 5.
In Africa, roughly 91.5 million girls and women over age nine have been subjected to FGM– and, roughly 3 million girls are at risk of being mutilated each year.
The history of FGM is not well known but the practice dates back at least 2000 years. It is not known when or where the tradition of Female Genital Mutilation originated from. It was believed that it was practised in ancient Egypt as a sign of distinction amongst the aristocracy. Some believe it started during the slave trade when black slave women entered ancient Arab societies. Some believe FGM began with the arrival of Islam in some parts of sub-Saharan Africa. Some believe the practice developed independently among certain ethnic groups in sub-Saharan Africa as part of puberty rites. Overall, in the history, it was believed that FGM would ensure women’s virginity and reduction in the female desire.
Many commentators believe that the practice evolved from earliest times in primitive communities that wished to establish control over the sexual behavior of women. The Romans performed a technique involving slipping of rings through the labia majora of female slaves to prevent them from becoming pregnant and the Scoptsi sect in Russia performed FGM to ensure virginity.
The practice is supported by traditional beliefs, values and attitudes. In some communities it is valued as a rite of passage to womanhood. (for example in Kenya and Sierra Leone) Others value it as a means of preserving a girl’s virginity until marriage, (for example in Sudan, Egypt, and Somalia) In most of these countries FGM is a pre-requisite to marriage and marriage is vital to a woman’s social and economic survival. It is believed by some African women that if their daughters are not circumcised would not get husband. This (FGM) harmful tradition has been guided by taboos from generation by generation. Some people believe the practice dated back to the Pharaonic Egypt as many in Sudan refer to FGM is pharaonic circumcision
FGM is a traditional and cultural norm in some regions and a religious/ideological duty in others. FGM is one method used to control women and girls to ensure they are socially acceptable as objects to be sold via arranged marriages. A bride’s prices goes up if she is a virgin, and even more if she is cut to prove her virginity is intact. Ensuring that potential brides are cut prior to menstruation is an important ritual to uphold the status and “honor” of her family.
Another aspect of control is the belief that removing the “pleasurable” parts of the female body will prevent women and girls from losing their virginity and become more eligible to marry and from preventing married women and girls from having extramarital affairs.
While women and girls suffer from this practice, they often suffer at the hands of older women, including their mothers, aunts or grandmothers. Women in these countries perform FGM on girls against their will. Even in western countries– and on Facebook– young women promote FGM as “female circumcision,” which is a natural, healthy, and important practice that prevents cancer and the transmission of STD’s. However, actual medical data proves the opposite. There are no known medical benefits to FGM and in fact, FGM actually causes numerous health complications, including death.
Childbirth complications include difficult delivery, excessive bleeding, caesarean section, need to resuscitate the baby, and obstetric fistula. U.N. data reveals that FGM/cut women’s infants face a significantly higher risk of dying during or immediately after birth. The rate of death is astronomically higher than that of non-FGM/cut women. FGM/cut women’s babies are:
A recent U.N. study cites that in addition to these statistics, another 1 to 2 babies per 100 deliveries die as a result of FGM.
Complete vaginal obstruction– preventing the menstrual flow and causing blood to accumulate in the vagina and uterus.
Menstrual and urination disorders, recurrent bladder and urinary tract infections, fistulae and infertility.
When one tool is used to cut multiple girls, which often occurs in communities where a group is cut on the same day as part of a cultural rite, the risk of HIV transmission is high. After an FGM/cut girl or woman is married and has sexual intercourse, her organs or vaginal tissue can be lacerated. Lacerated tissue and significant blood loss during childbirth both greatly increase her susceptibility of contracting HIV.
According to the Edna Adan University Hospital, Medical attention can be necessary after an FGM procedure, at the time of menstruation, at the time of marriage, during pregnancy, labor and delivery and post natal complications, especially within the first 10 days, here are some of the immediate possible risks:
•Infection: infection to the wound and septicaemia are often encountered and tetanus is not uncommon.
•Retention of Urine: (5 possible causes)
• Failure to Infibulate: when the two sides of the labia major fail to fuse, it necessitates that the child undergoes a repeat operation at a later date.
• Dysmeorrhoea: when the post-infibulation vaginal whole is too small there is a constant stagnation of menstrual blood and other vaginal secretions, causing bacteria to spread into the vaginal and uterine cavities. This is likely to increase the risk of chronic pelvic inflammation that might cause the severe abdominal cramps experienced by infibulated females during menstruation
• Recurrent Urinary Tract Infection: because of the flap of skin obstructing the urethra after infibulation, urine does not jet out during micturition. Instead, it hits the flap of skin obstructing the vulva and is then sprayed back into the vagina and then trickles out in drops. This obstruction also prevents proper vaginal hygiene and drainage and causes urinary stasis which is likely to cause recurrent urinary tract infection
• Possible Second FGM: because the small artificial opening that had previously permitted the passage of urine becomes insufficient to permit the drainage of the more viscous consistency of menstrual bleeding, doctors often have to convince the parents of these girls that the small vaginal opening be enlarged to permit the flow of menstrual blood.
• De-infibulation: The infibulation opening that had until then permitted the passage of urine and vaginal secretions is no longer able to permit intercourse. This will require that the husband make a forcible penetration to burst the skin obstructing the entrance to the vagina, or the opening will have to be cut open with scissors or a knife to allow the consummation of marriage
• Dyspareunia: the scar tissue that surrounds the vaginal orifice may be rigid and inelastic and can cause pain during sexual intercourse
• Infertility: because of the constant stagnation of menstrual blood and other vaginal secretions that have accumulated in the vaginal cavity, the resulting pelvic inflammation may obstruct the fallopian tubes and block the normal travel of the ovum along the tubes, preventing it from becoming fertilized by the male spermatozoa
• Vulval keloids and dermal cysts: apart from their unaesthetic appearance, these may interfere with consummation of marriage or with childbirth during delivery
https://cheapessaywritings24.com cheap dissertation writing During Pregnancy
During Labor and Delivery
• Caesarian: Some women arrive at the maternity hospital in labour with a very small infibulation opening. If the vagina is seen to be too rigid and scarred, and thought to be a possible cause of severe vaginal lacerations or third degree tears, it is likely that and elective caesarian section will be decided upon. If keloids have formed and are too large, a Caesarian section might be the best option to deliver this woman.
• Prolonged second stage of labour: because the vagina, perineum and the labia have all undergone mutilation that has left extensive scar formation, the vaginal canal becomes inelastic and the pelvic floor muscles rigid. Thus preventing the normal and gradual dilation of the vagina as well as the descent of the presenting part of the child during the second stage of labour
• Infection of the lacerations
• Delayed healing of the repaired perineum and vaginal tissues
• Sloughing of the vaginal wall, resulting in Vessico-vaginal fistula and/or recto-vaginal fistula
• Puerperal infection
• Cystocele and Rectocele: because of the prolonged labour during each delivery, there is added stretching of the vaginal wall muscles.
• This causes a prolapse of either the bladder or rectum to bulge into the vagina (1)
Circumcision is prescribed for both males and females. The correct view is that circumcision is obligatory for males and that it is one of the symbols of Islam, and that circumcision of women is mustahabb (loved/preferred/recommended) but not obligatory.
There are reports in the Sunnah which indicate that circumcision for women is prescribed in Islam. In Madeenah there was a woman who circumcised women and the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said to her: “Do not go to the extreme in cutting; that is better for the woman and more liked by the husband.” Narrated by Abu Dawood (5271), classed as saheeh by Shaykh al-Albaani in Saheeh Abi Dawood.
Dr. Haamid al-Ghawaabi says Female circumcision has not been prescribed for no reason, rather there is wisdom behind it and it brings many benefits.
Mentioning some of these benefits, Dr. Haamid al-Ghawaabi says:
Then Dr al-Ghawaabi refutes those who claim that female circumcision leads to frigidity by noting:
Frigidity has many causes, and this claim is not based on any sound statistics comparing circumcised women with uncircumcised women, except in the case of Pharaonic circumcision which is where the clitoris is excised completely. This does in fact lead to frigidity but it is contrary to the kind of circumcision enjoined by the Prophet of mercy (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) when he said: “Do not destroy” i.e., do not uproot or excise. This alone is evidence that speaks for itself, because medicine at that time knew very little about this sensitive organ (the clitoris) and its nerves.
From Liwa’ al-Islam magazine, issue 8 and 10; article entitled Khitaan al-Banaat (circumcision of girls):
The female gynaecologist Sitt al-Banaat Khaalid says in an article entitled Khitaan al-Banaat Ru’yah Sihhiyyah (Female circumcision from a health point of view):
“For us in the Muslim world female circumcision is, above all else, obedience to Islam, which means acting in accordance with the fitrah and following the Sunnah which encourages it. We all know the dimensions of Islam, and that everything in it must be good in all aspects, including health aspects. If the benefits are not apparent now, they will become known in the future, as has happened with regard to male circumcision – the world now knows its benefits and it has become widespread among all nations despite the opposition of some groups.”
Then she mentioned some of the health benefits of female circumcision and said:
In the book on Traditions that affect the health of women and children, which was published by the World Health Organization in 1979 it says: With regard to the type of female circumcision which involves removal of the prepuce of the clitoris, which is similar to male circumcision, no harmful health effects have been noted.And Allaah knows best.
https://cheapdissertationwriting.com/contact cheap dissertation writing Of course scientifically speaking, the above “information” is totally false and the many harmful side effects of FGM are well documented, researched and noted by the some of the best scientists and doctors around the world.
FGM is practiced by several Christian and Jewish peoples of Africa and other areas. However, there is no biblical reference whatsoever to legitimize this practice.
Female genital mutilation (FGM) is defined as the (usually ritual) cutting of the external female genitalia, or the altering or injuring of the female genital organs for non-medical purposes. The practice is typically carried out when a girl is between six and ten years old, though it is known to occasionally be performed on an […]
The practice and the prevalence of Female Genital Mutilation is disturbing, but what is almost as disturbing is the level of political correctness that often restricts open discussion and the ultimate prevention of FGM. The main issue that is danced around, is the amount of influence that Islam has on the practice of FGM. […]
With all her heart, Sister Fa stands up for the fight against female genital cutting. The wish to sensitize the population of her home country was the origin of her Education sans Excision (Education without Cutting) project. Since 2008 she tours every year very successful with her band through Senegal. In cooperation with NGO’s like Tostan, Orchid Project and World Vision she achieved beside many other things, that the inhabitants of her home village Thionck Essyl now officially abandoned this practice of cutting the young girls. Freedom Prize For her tireless work to better the situation of the woman and girls in her homeland Senegal, Freedom To Create awarded Sister Fa in November 2011 in Cape Town, South Africa with the main prize.In June 2010 Sister Fa had the honour together with Stars like Katja Riemann, Roger Moore, Mario Adorf and Karl Lagerfeld to use her voice at the UNICEF Gala An Evening for Africa in Offenburg, Germany for the African continent.In March 2011 Sister Fa was nominated for the A Matter of ACT Human Rights Award at the Movies That Matter Festival in Den Haag, Netherlands as well as the movie “Sarabah” about her. The movie won the Documentary Award.In October 2013 Sister Fa was invited at The Power 1000 , London’s most influential people party. Where she delivered a speech and met London’s mayor Boris Johnson.
Given the barbaric nature of clitoral excision or female genital mutilation (FGM), Rael, spiritual leader of the Raelian Movement and human rights activist, inspired the creation of Clitoraid, a private non-profit organization whose goal is to assist all FGM victims who want to have their clitoris rebuilt. Clitoraid is concentrating its charitable endeavor in Burkina Faso, West Africa where millions of genitally maimed women reside. Since 2006, Clitoraid has been able to train several doctors and assist in providing clitoral repair surgery for many women around the world who have traveled to France or the United States for their surgical repair treatment. All of our patients have reported improvements after the surgery, and about 60 percent of them have experienced orgasm – something they thought would never happen for them. We’re now in the final stages of the construction of our ‘Pleasure Hospital’ in Bobo Dioulasso, Burkina Faso that is due to open on March 8, 2014. There, we will offer the surgical procedure free of charge. This hospital is Clitoraid’s main goal at the moment, since most African women cannot afford this surgery that represents a 2 year salary for them, let alone traveling to another country to be treated. Our hospital is a dream come true for countless FGM victims who long to be whole again.
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